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Reference and citation

Citing and Referencing: Using Harvard

What is citation?

Citation is the means by which you tell a reader the sources books, journals, Web pages that you have referred to in your work. Why it is important to reference other peoples work? It is important to cite sources accurately for four main reasons; giving credit to other authors, showing that you have read widely, letting others trace the works you have read, and avoiding plagiarism.

WARNING: There are many citation systems. It is very important to check with your department or module’s handbook, or ask your tutor, for the style you will use.


Examples in this guide

This guide will show you how to cite a wide range of resources, using Harvard:

Books  Chapters from books    Journal articles
Conference papers Media websites Newspapers
Wikis Images Blogs
Capstones exhibition catalogues Email

Citing references in your text – also known as "In text citations" When using Harvard, cited items are referred to in the text of your work by giving the author’s name, year of publication and page numbers. If you are naming an author in your text, the date and page reference should be typed with brackets around them as in this example below: Chisunga (2007, p.54) argued that...

If you are only summarising an argument or not referring to the author directly you should place all the details in brackets e.g. In a recent study (Chisunga, 2007, p.54) it was argued that…

The author’s last names will appear in alphabetical order at the end of your essay where you will give the full publication details of references.

Citing sources in your reference list

For each type of material you cite you will need a slightly different arrangement:



AUTHOR(S), Year. Title. Edition –if not the 1st. Place of publication: Publisher e.g. Gachira, W., 2005. Analysis of economic data. 2nd ed. Harare: Mambo Press


Chapter from an edited book

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of chapter. In: AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S), ed(s). Book title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages. (use p. or pp.)

e.g. Mbengo, P., 2002. The marketing fundamental. In: Gwarimbo, W., ed. Marketing Principles. Bulawayo: NUST University Press, pp. 75


Journal article

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Vol. no. (Part no./Issue/Month), Pages.

e.g. KUZNAR, L.A., and LUTZ, J.M., 2007. Risk sensitivity and terrorism. Political studies 55(2), 341 –361.



(Some websites do not have all the citation elements so cite all the ones you can find)

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of document. [online]. Organisation responsible (optional). [date viewed]. Available from: web address

e.g. CHIMANASA, P., 2014. Speech by the Minister of Finance at Zimbabwe Parliament. [online]. Treasury, Harare. [Viewed 17/06/2014]. Available from http://www.zimtreasury.gov.zw/speech_chex_2014_index.htm retrieved July 14th2014


Newspaper articles

AUTHOR(S), Year. Article title. Newspaper title, Day and Month (abbreviated), Pages, (use p. or pp.)

e.g. Chinakidzwa, M., 2012 Zimbabwe’s financial tsunami. The Financial Gazette, 27 Feb, p. 1



ARTIST, Year. Title of the work [Material types]. At or In: (where found, for example in a book or museum). IN: AUTHOR/EDITOR of book, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g.Mungate, S., 1427 The Temptation of Adam and Eve [Painting]. In: BRUCEMITFORD, M., 1996. The Illustrated Book of Signs and Symbols. Gweru: Mambo Press


Papers in conference proceedings

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title. In: EDITOR(S) Title of conference proceedings. Place and date of conference (unless included in title). Place of publication: Publisher, Pages, use p. or pp.

e.g.Nkomo, D.J., 1977. The performance concept in banking. In: Proceedings of the7th CIB Triennial Congress, Mutare, September 1977. Marondera: Banking Research Institute, pp. 49-63


Theses and dissertations (capstone design)

AUTHOR, Year. Title. Designation (Level, e.g. MSc, PhD.), Institution.

e.g.Makonde, D., 2012. "An Investigation on developing effective inventory Management Techniques". Unpublished capstone design (Honours), Harare Institute of Technology


Electronic messages from a public domain. e.g. discussion boards or conferences

AUTHOR (of message), Year. Title. In: Electronic conference or bulletin board. [online]. [date viewed]. Available from: web address.

e.g.Zimucha [sn. of Zimuto]. 2006. Problems with kernel 2.6.17-4. In: Ubuntu forums: Edgy
Eftdevelopment [online]. [viewed 10 July 2006]. Available from: http://www.ubuntuforums.org


Weblogs (Blogs)

AUTHOR, Year. Title of the posting (if applicable). In: Title of the blog [online]. [date viewed]. Available from: web address.

e.g.HIT LIBRARY, 2011. Preserving the digital material. In: hit-lib [online]. [viewed
18/09/2011]. Available from: http://blog.hit.ac.zw/blog.



WIKI NAME, Year. Title of article. [online]. [date viewed]. Available from: web address.

e.g.LIBRARYWIKIS, 2008. Collaboration between libraries. [online]. [viewed 17/09/2010] Available from: http://librarywikis.pbworks.com/Collaboration -between-Libraries